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2012ASLA专业奖 通用设计杰出奖 哈尔滨群力雨洪公园 [复制链接]

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国家公园景观
按成果: 完成展示 奖项获得 
按国家: 亚洲国家 » 中国大陆
按时间: 2010 
本主题最后由 Gardener 于 2014-7-28 12:03 编辑

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2012ASLA专业奖通用设计杰出奖 哈尔滨群力雨洪公园


景观 社区尺度生态可持续 水适应城市 雨洪公园 群力国家城市湿地公园


别开生面。功能方式耳目一新,与众不同的设计。
2012年专业奖评审委员会

1. 引言:雨涝困扰当代城市

全球气候变化导致了前所未有的极端天气,强暴雨时有发生,由此导致的城市洪水已经成
为了全球性问题。在中国,由于中国不断扩大的城市建设区,而且多数城市都处在季风气
候中,70-80%的年降水都集中在夏季,在一些极端的例子中,每年20%的自然降水可以在
一天内完成。以北京为例,年平均降水只有500mm,但在2011年,仅一天的降水就达到
了50到120mm。因为不渗水铺装的增加,即使在常态降雨情况下,城市雨涝在中国的各主
要城市中仍然娄见不鲜。

通常,人们会借助于市政排水工程的方法来解决城市雨涝问题:铺设大型排水管道,更大
的泵或者建更坚固的堤坝,这种单一的方法带来着很多的问题:

(1).经济方面:建造足够大容量的地下管道系统来排放极端暴雨,是十分浪费和昂贵
的,而且也会增加我们的子孙们的城市管理和维护负担。

(2) 水资源短缺方面:中国淡水资源短缺,大都市区域的地下水位下降是一个严重的问
题。在中国660多个城市里,有400多个正经历着水资源短缺的困扰。比如,在中国的华北
地区每年地下水位下降达2米之多。由于过度使用地下水,几乎没有给地下含水层以足够
的补给,可以看到北京在过去三十年间,地下水位平均每年下降1.5米。所有落到城市的雨
水都经由管道排走或引入河流。

(3) 生态系统服务方面:工程雨水排放系统的广泛使用,造成了地表水体的消失,包括
水生生境尤其是城市湿地的消失。另外,当所有这些雨水被排走的时候,城市里的公园和
绿色空间就需要更多的灌溉,于是就更加剧了水资源短缺问题。在这种情况下,公园绿地
是昂贵的消费者,而非生产者和生态服务的供给者。

利用景观滞留和净化雨水,起到海绵的作用,是常规市政工程以外的、能对城市雨洪水管
理发挥很大作用的很好途径。这种方法的一个例子是本文介绍的哈尔群力滨雨洪公园。 它
整合了大尺度雨洪景观管理和城市乡土生境的保护、地下水补充、居民休憩和审美体验等
多种功能,对综合而明智地解决城市雨洪问题,进行了有益的探索。


2. 设计内容与目标

2006年,位于中国北方城市哈尔滨市的东部新城——群力开始建设,总占地2733公顷。
在接下来的13到15年里,将有3200万平方米的建筑全部建成,约30万人将在这里居住。
仅有16.4%的城市土地被规划为永久的绿色空间,原先大部分的平坦地将被混凝土覆盖。
当地的年降水量是567mm,60%-70%集中在6-8月份,历史上该地区洪涝频繁。

2009年中,受当地政府委托,北京土人景观承担了这个新城中心一个主要公园的设计,占
地34.2公顷,原为一块被保护的区域湿地。受周边道路建设和高密度城市发展的影响,湿
地面临着严重威胁。最初委托方只要求设计师能想办法维护湿地的存在,土人的设计改变
了为保护而保护的单一目标,而是从解决城市问题出发,利用城市雨洪,将公园转化为城
市雨洪公园,从而为城市提供了多重生态系统服务:它可以收集、净化和储存雨水,经过
湿地净化后的雨水补充地下水含水层;受雨水的侵润,可以使茂盛的乡土生境在城市中央
繁衍; 同时,通过巧妙设计,雨洪公园可以成为市民休憩的良好去处,并带动城市的发
展。

从上述目标出发,该项目中,创新性地运用了以下几个设计策略:


3.设计理念与策略

总体的设计理念是,通过最少的工程量,来实现城市、建筑及人的活动与洪涝过程的和谐
共生,实现城市绿地的综合生态系统服务功能。

(1)保留现存湿地中部的大部分区域,作为自然演替区。这样,既可以大大减少工程
量,同时,可以让本土的自然景观得以充分地繁育。

(2)沿四周通过挖填方的平衡技术,创造出一系列深浅不一的水坑和高低不一的土丘,
成为一条蓝-绿宝石项链,作为雨水过滤和净化带,是城市与自然湿地之间的缓冲区,形成
自然与城市之间的一层过滤膜和体验界面。沿湿地四周布置雨水进水管,收集新城市区的
雨水,使其经过沉淀和过滤后进入核心区的自然湿地。不同深度的水泡为乡土水生和湿生
植物群落提供多样的栖息地,开启自然演替进程。土丘上密植白桦林((Betula
pendula),步道网络穿梭于丘林和水泡之间,给游客带来林穿越山林的体验。水泡中设
临水平台和座椅,使人们可以更加贴近自然。

(3) 高架栈桥连接山丘,给游客们带来凌空于树冠之上的体验。多个观光平台,5个亭子
(竹、木、砖、石和金属)和两个观光塔(一个是钢质高塔,位于公园的东端;另外一个
是木质的树状高塔,坐落在西北角)在山丘之上,通过空中走廊连接,通过这些体验空间
的设计,使人远可眺公园之泱泱美景,近可体验公园内各自然景观之元素。


4. 结果

通过场地的转换设计,使湿地的多种功能的以彰显:包括收集、净化、储存雨水和补给地
下水。昔日的湿地得到了恢复和改善,乡土生物多样性得以保存,同时为城市居民营造了
舒适的居住环境。原来被城市发展所包围的省级湿地公园,通过本设计和工程,目前已经
晋升为国家城市湿地公园。建筑与雨洪得以和谐共生,自然和城市发展得以同时发展。


哈尔滨群力雨洪公园
群力新区, 哈尔滨, 黑龙江, 中国
项目面积:34公顷
设计时间:2009年6-11月;建成时间:2010年11月
设计团队:俞孔坚、宋本明、龙翔、韩晓烨、李宏丽、 张文娟、孟繁鑫、孟祥芸、李果、
张莉、官苗苗、徐波、袁文宇、何冲、陈枫、凌宏


Contemporarycities are not resilient when faced with inundations of surface water.
Landscapearchitecture can play a key role in addressing this problem. This project
demonstratesa Stormwater park that acts as a green sponge, cleansing and storing
urbanstormwater and can be integrated with other ecosystem services including the
protectionof native habitats, aquifer recharge, recreational use, and aesthetic
experience,in all these ways fostering urban development.


Beginning in 2006, a 2,733 hectare (6,753acres) new urban district, Qunli New Town,
wasplanned for the eastern outskirts of Haerbin in northern China. Thirty-twomillion
squaremeters (344,445,133 sq. ft.) of building floor area will be constructed in thenext
13to 15 years. More than one third of a million people are expected to livethere. While
about16 percent of the developable land was zoned as permeable green space, the
majorityof the former flat plain will be covered with impermeable concrete. The annual
rainfallthere is 567 millimeters (22 inches), with the months of June, July, and August
accountingfor 60 to 70 percent of annual precipitation. Floods and waterlogging have
occurredfrequently in the past, while at the same time the ground water table continues
todrop due to its overuse.

In mid-2009, the landscape architect wascommissioned to design a park of 34 hectares
(84acres) right in the middle of this new town, which is listed as a protectedregional
wetland.The site is surrounded on four sides by roads and dense development. This
wetlandhad thereby been severed from its water sources and was under threat. The
originaltask given by the client was to preserve this wetland. Going beyond theoriginal
taskof preserving the wetland, the landscape architect proposed to transform thearea
intoan urban stormwater park that will provide multiple ecosystems services, andwill
collect,cleanse, and store stormwater and infiltrate it into the aquifer, protect and
recoverthe native habitats, proved a public space for recreational use and aesthetics
experience,as well as foster urban development.

The challenges are obvious: How can adisappearing wetland be preserved in the
middleof the city when its ecological and biological processes have been cut off bythe
urbancontext? How such an urban wetland ecosystem can be designed to provide
multipleecosystems for the city? And what is the economic way to deal with such a big
landscape?


Design Strategy

Several design strategies and elements wereemployed:

The central part of the existing wetland isleft along to allow the natural habitats to
continueto evolve.

Cut-and-fill strategy to create an outer ringof mounds and ponds. The cut-and-fill
aroundthe perimeter is a minimum earthwork strategy to transform the site. Earth is
excavatedand used to build up a necklace of ponds and mounds around the perimeter
ofthe park. This ring acts as a stormwater filtrating and cleansing buffer zonefor the
corewetland, and a transition between nature and city. Stormwater from the newlybuilt
urbanarea is collected around the perimeter of the wetland and then released evenly
intothe wetland after having being filtered through the ponds. Native wetlandgrasses
andmeadows are grown on ponds of various depths, and natural processes are
initiated.Groves of native silver Birch trees (Betula pendula) grow on mounds of various
heightsand create a dense woodland. A network of paths links the ring of ponds and
mounds,allowing visitors to have a walking-through-forest experience. Platforms and
seatsare put near the ponds to enable people to have close contact with nature.

The network of paths and platforms: A networkof paths links the ring of ponds and
mounds,allowing visitors to have a walking-through-forest experience. Platforms and
seatsare put near the ponds to enable people to have close contact with nature.

A skywalk links the scattered mounds allowingresidents to have an above-the-wetland
andin-the-canopy experience. Platforms, five pavilions (Bamboo, Wood, Brick,Stone,
andMetal), and two viewing towers (one made of steel and located at the eastcorner,
theother one made of wood and looking like a tree at the north-west corner) are seton
themounds and connected by the skywalk, allowing visitors to have views into the
distanceand observation of nature in the center of the park.


Conclusion

The completely transformed site performs manyfunctions, including collecting,
cleansing,and storing stormwater, and recharging underground aquifers. The pre-
existingwetland habitat has been restored and native biodiversity preserved.Potentially
floodingstormwater now contributes to an environmental amenity in the city. The storm
waterpark has not only become a popular urban amenity but has also been upgraded
toa National Urban Wetland Park because of its improvement to ecological and
biologicalconditions.


MORE:  俞孔坚和北京土人景观与建筑规划设计研究院 KongjianYu & Turenscape


http://www.turenscape.com/  




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