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2011ASLA专业奖{3}规划设计杰出奖 [复制链接]

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发表于 2012-11-3 09:32:59 |显示全部楼层
国家公园景观
按成果: 方案效果阶段 奖项获得 
按国家: 亚洲国家 » 中国港澳台
按时间: 2011 
本主题最后由 Gardener 于 2014-7-28 10:55 编辑

规划设计 (15).jpg

2011ASLA专业奖{3}规划设计杰出奖

关键词:景观 2011ASLA 可持续 台湾 湿地 填海 候鸟 公园 规划 National Sun Yat-sen University


纪录片《迁徙的鸟》开篇第一句话是:“鸟的迁徙是一个关于承诺的故事。”电影导演也表示“飞翔对鸟来说不是人们想象的什么乐趣,而是为了生存而拼搏。它们要穿越云层、迎着暴风雨,许多困难不是我们能够想象的。”


候鸟是脆弱的,容易受到伤害的,但是候鸟也是极度敏锐的,在这个自然环境日益恶劣的地球,他们总能在第一时间发现适合避难的新天堂。它们的选择和行为,就是大自然最直白的评价。真正的自然,无需人类任何褒奖,获得动物们的认可足以。


一个新兴的自然乐园——鳌鼓湿地森林公园总体规划

“在我们所看到的那些优秀的应对水的措施中,这个方案有趣的将填海地区的海岸线回归成自然状态,这是多么激进而彻底的举动。尺度惊人,不仅可以观赏风景,也成为鸟类全球迁徙路程的一部分,这里上演着真正的自然,引起人们的共鸣。”

2011年专业奖评审委员会


项目概况:

项目占地1600公顷并位于亚洲鸟类迁徙路线之上。湿地的基础是以前填海的土地。原来的土地不能继续使用是因为该区地表下陷和农耕停止。项目立足于人类发展的可再生居住策略,顺应场地自然系统的演进过程,并发挥其环境教育和生态旅游的意义。


项目内容:

在过去的几十年中,平坦宽敞的题海用地具有各种用途与发展。但其与自然保护之间的争论冲突一直在全球各地上演。这个位于台湾西南部的鳌鼓湿地森林公园,经历了各种阶段的发展最终演变成为自然湿地。1964年以前,这里还是典型的潮汐泥湿地。后来由于农耕和畜牧业的发展到此这个地方建设了C型海塘,占用了超过1,000公顷的湿地。但原本打算用来种植甘蔗、养猪和养鱼的这片地方,在地表下沉和几次洪水之后,土壤盐分变多而不能生产甘蔗。最终在2001, 这里被用作造林区。过去的四十年中,该地区发生了显著的演变,目前这里有自然湿地也有人工森林的结合。鳌鼓湿地森林公园是在此基础上发展产生。 这个森林公园是自然生态系统进程中的演示性区域。恢复成海滨湿地后, 意外的成为了迁徙候鸟和其他野生动物的避难所。该项目以人为本,保护自然,并强调自然系统、环境教育、生态旅游和文化延续的可持续性和关联性。


项目挑战:

季节性洪水和干旱,以及土地沉降。因为C型海棠的封闭,台风季节每月将于在300---500毫米,而干旱地区这里的淡水严重不足。水污染。以前养猪场的规模达到3万头猪,虽然猪场废水经过简单处理,但是养鱼场和其它区域的水污染一直未得到解决。造林项目。因为经济原因,最开始都是单一林区,具备很低的多样化性,同时人工林和自然林的交替过渡也存在问题。因为候鸟数量增多,引发了有人增多,无节制的旅游活动需要被管理。在总规划中希望用最小的影响来解决环境问题以及恢复自然栖息地。概念就是“依返,保护,建立环境和教育价值。”


分析和规划过程:

面临着复杂的水文和自然环境系统:1 确定文化设施;2 识别和保护重要栖息地;3 被淹没的房子保留;4 尊重种植物和自然植物;5处理污水;6为旅游留出区域。


战略

根据环境敏感性制定保护策略。西不是核心保护区。中部是缓冲区,为游客和村民提供旅游和种服务。东部是环境敏感性低的入口区,承担教育和示范作用。项目力求回复不同栖息地和各种生态统。湿地,红树林,滩涂,林地,草地,野生场地,钓鱼区等等都被整合到湿地公园。


水文策略

这里淡水稀缺,暴雨季节又泛洪。因此各类湿地被设计成为最大化利用淡水资源。中心公园有0.3万立方米的洪水泄洪池。湿地在净化这里的雨水,可作为农业生产用水,发挥重要作用。


种植策略

盐湿地导致植物生长不好,种类少。通轻微改变地形,增大种植面积,进行引种和补种。1 ,调查多达百种植物;2,创建微地形,补充本土植物达到生物多样性;3,引发自然演替;4,将景观和活动整合。


分区策略

为了保证环境多样性,从东到西,环境保护准则越来越高。西侧拥有最高的生物多样性,享受核心保护。开挖的一些人工渠道成为新兴的多样化生物栖息地。中部公园有300人的小村,村民继续打渔,同时设置排涝泵保护这里不旱不涝。东侧的入口区域靠近著名的寺庙。公园开放了水上区域,允许游客中深度潜入公园,体会自然环境,接受景观环境教育,东部区域也拥有商业和基本服务区域。


实施策略

开发过程中保持了公众的高度参与,各专家帮忙协商。列出最重要的问题,实施淘汰战略。组件可持续性管理框架。组织政府以及非政府部门,保证和维持公园运作。


An Emerging Natural Paradise — Aogu WetlandForest Park Master Plan

Among thebest water initiatives we saw. It’s interesting that they took the approachthat a previously reclaimed shoreline should go back to the natural--what aradical move. The scale was amazing, instead of just looking at the landscape,they looked at global flyways. A really clear presentation that resonates.”

2011Professional Awards Jury

By National Sun Yat-sen University,Kaohsiung, Taiwan  


Project Statement

Aogu is a 1,600-hectare site located on theroute of Asian migrating birds. The site has been reclaimed from the sea andunexpectedly reverted to a coastal wetland because of land subsiding and thecessation of farming in the area. The project focuses on establishing a seriesof re-habitation strategies on site that is reclaimed for human development,and emphasizes the site as a seeding process for the natural systems, as wellas environmental education and eco-tourism.


Project Narrative

Over the past decades, flat and spaciouscoastal areas have been seen various usages and development. The contention andconflict between human development and natural conservation along the coastalarea occur all around the world. The project, Aogu Wetland and Forest Park, islocated in the southwest area of Taiwan, and has experienced different stagesof development before it eventually reverted to natural wetland. On the estuaryof the Bei-Gang River, the site was a typical tidal mud wetland before 1964.The site began the C-shaped seawall construction and reclaimed over1,000-hectare of lands from sea in 1964 because of the farming and livestockindustry. Historically, the land was desalinated and prepared for a

sugar plantation, a pig farm and a fishfarm. After the land subsided and several serious inundation events by the seaoccurred, the soil become saline and the production of sugar ceased on thesite. In 2001, the site was selected as an afforestation area. The landscapeand habitat have changed dramatically in the past 40 years, and the site nowconsists of a combination of natural wetland and artificial woodland. The AoguWetland and Forest Park comes from this changing process of environment.

Aogu Wetland and Forest Park is theshowplace of the process of natural systems. The site has been reclaimed andreverted back to a coastal wetland, which unexpectedly has become a refuge formigratory birds and other wildlife. The aim of this project focuses onestablishing a series of conservation and re-habitation strategies on sitesreclaimed for human development, and emphasizes the site as a seeding processfor the natural systems, as well as environmental education, eco-tourism andcultural sustainability.


Project Issues

Seasonal Flood and Drought: The site isstill enclosed by a C-shaped seawall with the challenge of land subsiding. Therainfall during typhoon season can reach 300-500 mm per month, and create themajor flood issue. During the drought season, the shortage of fresh waterchallenges the survival of wetland and forest habitat.

Water Pollution: In the Aogu Wetland andForest Park, is a pig farm with 30,000 pigs. The wastewater from the pig farmis treated by a secondary treatment plant, but the outflow from the plant andotheruntreated wastewater from surrounding fish farms and villages create majorproblems to the wetland and forest park.


Afforestation Project: Based on the economicpurpose, the afforestation project planted single species in each 100 by 400meter land plot from 2001 to 2009. The artificial woodland with low diversityand natural habitat faces the critical issue of natural succession in thechanging environment.


Conflict between Wildlife Conservation andthe Tourism Industry: The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park is becoming famousbecause of the number of migrating birds in the past few years. Unregulatedtourism activities create major conflicts and environmental impacts to thewetland and forest habitats.


The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park masterplan aims to use methods with the least impact to resolve the environmentalproblems and restore the natural habitats for various types of waterfowl andwildlife. The main concept for this project is returning, keeping, andrecreating this site to its environmental and educational values.


Analysis and Planning Process

The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park facescomplicated hydrological and natural environmental systems. The master plan isthe result of a sequence of physical surveys, suitability analyses, andplanningprocesses describing the following: 1) identify the existing facilitiesand culture; 2) identify and conserve the critical habitat; 3) leave room forwater at flooding area; 4) respect the planting and natural pattern; 5) resolvethe issue of wastewater; and 6) use the area left over for eco-tourism.


Conservational Strategies

The conservation strategies are designedbased on environmental sensibility in various areas. The western site of thepark (Don-Shi Park) is the conservation core area with strict conservationpolicies. The middle part of the park (Don-Shi

Park) plays the buffering role and providesservices to natural species, villagers, and visitors. The eastern part of thepark (Xi-Zi-Xia Park) is the entrance of the park with less environmentalsensibility, but of high value in regard to education and demonstration. Themain concept of the conservation is to restore and re-populate various types ofhabitats to recreate various eco-systems that existed here historically. In themaster plan, marsh, mangrove, mud flat, open water, salt mud, ditches,woodland, grass land, wild farm, fishing ponds, etc., are merged into thewetland and forest park.


Hydrological Strategies

.Therefore, keeping all available fresh water on site has been the guideline forthe hydrological strategies, except the storm rainfall intensity is higher thandesign standard. Since the rain is unevenly distributed over the year, varioustypes of wetlands have been designed for maximizing utilization of theavailable freshwater sources. A flood-detention pond at the center of theDon-shi Park, which is capable of storing the 0.3 million cubic meters of stormrainfall runoff that comes only once or twice a year.

Domestic discharges and farm disposals arecollected through drainage ditches, purified through a set of constructedwetlands, and stored in the detention pond during the dry season. This willplay the most important role in keeping the proposal green and viable.


Planting Strategies

Due to the afforestation project, the lowdiversity of the woodlands, and several species are not in a healthy conditionbecause of the salty and wet soil. The master plan alters the micro-topography,and uses the native species to recover the afforestation area gradually. Theplanting strategies include ecological

replanting, buffering replanting,wind-breaking replanting, and historical-replanting strategies. The master planfocuses on the emerging coastal environment strategically with the followingsequence: 1) get detailed surveys of the tree species in each 100 by 400 meterland plot; 2) create micro-topography changes and replant native species tore-habitat the diversity of planting; 3) allow the environment return to thenatural succession through time; and 4) merge diverse landscape and relatedactivities.


Zoning Strategies

The Aogu Wetland and Forest Park is zonedwith the idea of green gradient. The park is planned for more environmentaldiversity, with strict and higher protection guidelines from east to west sidesof the site. The park can be divided into three major parks. From west to eastare Don-Shi Park, Don-Shi Park and Xi-


Zi-Xia Park sequentially. Don-Shi Park hasthe highest diversity and is the core for conservation. The plan is to alterthe artificial channel to natural waterways and various wetlands for restoringthe most possible rainfall runoff during the wet season and purifying allavailable disposals to support the emerging diverse habitats. Aogu Park has asmall village (300 people) in its center. This park acts as a Wise Use Area inthe master plan. People living in this area can practice their fishing farm ina sustainable way, and use this area as a center for outdoor education. Aring-wetland system will be connected through created waterways around thevillage to protect it from flooding and treating the domestic disposals. Waterwill be circulated within the ring by using the flood drainage pumps tomaintain creativities and biodiversity during the dry season. Xi-Zu-Xia


Park is holding the entrance of the wholeproject area and is next to a famous temple. This park is a public access areawith a deep open water park in the master plan. The visitor’s center will befloating on the water, letting visitors experience the natural environment andbecome educated before going into the park


with high environmental sensitivities.Basic services and facilities can be provided to the public. Local people canuse this area to set up their commercial development and services to the wholeproject area eventually.


Implemental Strategies

The master plan is developed through aserious public involvement, meetings, and consultations with experts thathelped identity key issues and shape the planning process. The master planincludes phasing strategies with the least input regarding significant issues,and let natural succession take over gradually within a monitoring,educational, and management framework. An organizational structure, includingNGOs, communities, government, committees. etc., is provided in the master planto facilitate and maintain the operation of the park.


All images © National Sun Yat-senUniversity, Yannlin Photo, Forestry Bureau


http://www.asla.org   




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