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2014 ASLA 住宅景观设计荣誉奖 City House in a Garden [复制链接]

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发表于 2015-2-13 04:56:57 |显示全部楼层
庭院景观
按成果: 完成展示 奖项获得 
按国家: 美洲国家 » 美国
按时间: 2014 
本主题最后由 源创网 于 2015-2-13 04:57 编辑

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"To create a beautiful small urban garden may be one of the hardest challenges of a landscape architect and this project excels. It is beautifully crafted and detailed from the vines and ferns that merge with the cast concrete to the colors of the plants that highlight the furniture. The careful integration of diverse programs remains elegant and welcoming. The architecture and landscape extend one another through texture, color, and form, creating remarkable garden as a work of art and as a place of nature."- 2014 Awards Jury

“对景观建筑师来说,最困难的挑战也许就是去创造一个美丽的小型城市花园了。而这个项目的难度有过之而无不及。每一个细节,从和预制混凝土板结合的蔓藤与蕨类植物,到让家具更突出的植物的颜色,都经过精心的栽培和设计的。对多样化的方案进行细心的整合使其仍然优雅温馨。建筑和景观通过纹理,色彩和形式互相延伸,创造出这样一个美妙的花园,作为一件艺术的作品,也作为一片自然的场地。”——2014获奖评语

City House in a Garden by McKay Landscape Architects  
via:asla

芝加哥的座右铭是“花园里的城市。”恰如其分地,客户想要一个花园里的城市别墅。这种把城市与绿化的并置促发了关于对比的更深入的研究:公共的与私密的,内部的与外部的,正式的与非正式的,修饰的与原生的。结果是一个由铜,IPE,和与葱郁的景观相交织的混凝土所组成的家。通过把完全不同的空间和材料元素并置,既能加强每种元素的内在特点,又能相互和谐地组合在一起。

Chicago’s motto is ‘Urbs in Horto.’ Fittingly, the client wanted a City House in a Garden. This juxtaposition of urban and verdant instigated a larger study in contrast: public and private, inside and outside, formal and informal, polished and raw. The result is a home of copper, ipe and concrete knit into a lush landscape. Disparate spatial and material elements are harmonized while the inherent qualities of each element are amplified through the juxtaposition.

↑ The entry is privately tucked away behind a garden planted with Royal Frost birches, rhododendron, and dwarf Japanese maples. A yew hedge serves as a background for the Entry Garden and screens the school parking lot to the south.
入口私密地隐藏在种植了桦树,杜鹃和日本矮枫树的花园后面。红豆杉是入口花园的背景,同时还把学校停车场遮挡在南面。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

项目陈述

位于芝加哥密集的“林肯公园”居住区,客户的新建独栋家庭住宅设计时有两个目标——为他们的四人家庭创造一个现代房屋,同时在内部和外部空间之间建立起整体的关系。

客户很喜爱城市环境,也打算让家庭在城市中心居住和成长。与此同时,他们对种植和大自然也有浓厚的兴趣,并且想让自己的孩子也发展出这种兴趣。因此,设计需要同时包含对两者的热爱——对城市与大自然——这也证明了这两种爱并不互相抵触。事实上,如果经过仔细推敲,城市与自然可以相互衬托,并且同时达到它们自己最好的状态。

功能要求

建筑基地是50’x125’,是平均城市住宅用地的两倍。但和很多城市里的基地一样,邻里居住区的高密度使得在户外创造一个私密空间成为挑战。基地的周围是高层住宅,南边直接就是一所小学和停车场。另一方面,学校停车场在学校建筑与居民楼之间有一条75’宽的间距,这让建筑的长边获得了令人羡慕的南向开阔空间,这是一个在城市环境中是绝无仅有的优势。

建筑占了50%的用地,留下3600平方英尺的室外地面面积可用作满足客户对功能的要求:一个用餐和娱乐空间,一个烧烤区,以及若干个多年生植物的园艺区。1439平方英尺的绿色屋顶提供了所需求的额外蔬菜种植区,而且这里还能够看到城市天际线。在屋顶花园,首层种植面和砾石花园之中,53%的覆盖面是透水的,这达到了客户与设计师的另一个目标——减少水的流失同时缓解热岛效应。

通过发展出四种不同的景观,设计表达了客户的需求和回应了基地的挑战。这四个景观分别是:入口花园,花园小径,西花园和屋顶花园。每个花园都有个字不同的功能和自身特色。把它们联系在一起的是其多样性,丰富性以及它们自身独立存在的能力,并且衬托着具有同等丰富性的建筑而存在。

入口花园

与周边的住宅不同,该项目对公共通道的接纳态度是独一无二的。并不存在栏杆或大门来阻止人们靠近房子。入口花园一直延伸到花园小道,以菩提树和种在下面的多年生植物与野草为特色——一种更多见于私人花园设置的多彩且奔放的感受。入口花园与房子的现代材料共同创造了一种视觉并置,并且让所有路过的人都留下感官体验。

花园小道有这样一种开放的氛围,而正入口的设计方式则让人想起弗兰克赖特。该入口私密地隐藏在升高花园的背后,花园里种植了桦树,杜鹃,和日本矮枫树。南边的一棵红豆杉就像是入口花园的背景画面,同时把学校和停车场挡在南面。绣球花沿着建筑墙壁蔓延,而波士顿常春藤爬满了入口的长凳。

花园小径

沿着房子南面的边缘,在一面干净的玻璃和ipe墙与一面6英尺水泥墙之间,花园小径的存在把公共的花园小道与私密的西花园连接起了起来。这种用来过渡,通常被视为次等空间的地方这次被设计为一个具有自身特色的冥想空间。巨大粗糙的花岗岩嵌入到豆砾石当中,并且间种着野姜,天竺葵,落新妇,淫羊藿,蕨类植物和心叶牛舌草。凌霄花和绣球花爬上水泥墙,优雅地与粗野主义的表面形成对比。

水泥墙的南面,种在学校停车场内的榆树产生的阴影能遮蔽建筑的南立面,同时减少夏天建筑吸收的热能。这个区域很明亮,感觉几乎像是一个带有城市的声音的地中海步行花园,还伴有榆树的沙沙作响。

西花园

建筑边界墙体上的阴阳——也就是一面朝南的木模版水泥墙和一面朝向西北的ipe板围栏,让建筑首层能够大范围的使用玻璃围合。就像是建筑的外墙被移到用地红线上,而外部空间就像是建筑内部的延伸。侧滑门的使用以及室内外连续的青石地面铺装让这个概念更得以加强。同时,这些墙体也提供了一个舒适的有限视觉范围。

西花园的特色是包裹在墙内的青石表面,这里可用于就餐和娱乐的目的。西花园种植了桂树,羽叶山毛榉,日本茶花,欧洲山松,木瓜,虎睛黄栌,多年生植物和各种观赏花草,打造出丰富的质感和层次。叶子的原始和粗糙与青石有序的节点和ipe墙上明快的水平线都形成了对比。

一墩水泥矮墙与西花园结合成一体,并且成为让孩子参与的雕塑和互动元素。孩子们把矮墙当作平衡木,商店柜台,读书台或者是玩捉迷藏的好地方。而由于这个花园不需要使用化肥维护,所以孩子可以在花园里任意发挥想象尽情玩耍。

屋顶花园

从街上可以看见的绿色屋顶和屋顶上种植蔬菜的花园可以从建筑的二层抵达,它再次模糊了公共与私密,城市与自然,市区与农村的界限。从门口到蔬菜种植区的小道是嵌入砾石的脚踏石做成的,同时还套种了景天属植物和百里香,让这个升高的空间有更接地的感觉。而且绿色屋顶种植的印度草,小须芒草,燕麦,藿香,白松果菊,夏美人等植物也加强了这种感受,让人想起该地区特有的大草原。这个屋顶上的绿洲柔化了建筑的现代立面,而且减少了热岛效应,也让其下面的空间更加独立,同时减少了流经屋顶的灰水,还能吸引野生动物。

每个区域——入口花园,花园小径,西花园,以及屋顶花园——都有自身的目的和特点。然而它们有个共同的目的,这就是让生活在这的一家人能够在这个多样而活泼的花园范围感受他们现代化的家庭。家庭成员积极主动地参与到对花园的照料当中,享受这种体验带来的感受,享受受花园吸引而来的蝴蝶和小鸟,享受花园带来的私密性——就在他们深爱的城市中心。

↑ An urban home of copper, ipe and concrete knit into a lush landscape. Disparate spatial and material elements are harmonized while the inherent qualities of each element are amplified through juxtaposition.
一个由铜,IPE和混凝土建成的现代城市住宅与茂盛的景观相互交织。通过并置的手法,完全不同的空间和材料元素得以相互和谐共存,同时又强调出每种元素各自的内在特点。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ The raised parkway planters feature Boulevard lindens underplanted with perennials and ornamental grasses, a riot of color and wildness more typically found in a private setting, contrasting with the clean materials of the house.
升高的花园小道花槽种有菩提树,树下配有多年生植物和各种观赏花草,这种常见于私人花园的多彩且奔放的搭配与建筑简洁的材料形成了对比。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan


↑ A board formed concrete wall allows much of the first floor to be enclosed in glass. Outside space is seemingly inside, an idea reinforced by sliding doors and a continuous bluestone ground plane.
一道木模版水泥墙让大部分的建筑首层都能够用玻璃围合。外部空间看上去就像室内一样。侧滑门的使用和从室内连续大室外的青石地板铺装更让这个概念得到强化。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ Trumpet vines climb the board formed concrete wall, their horizontal foliage mirroring the wall’s crease lines.
喇叭花的藤蔓爬到水泥墙上,横向叶子呼应着墙上的木模版留下的横缝。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ Along the southern edge of the house, positioned between a clean wall of glass and ipe and a concrete wall, the contemplative Garden Walk links the public entry and the private West Garden.
在房子的南面,在简洁的玻璃和IPE墙与一道水泥墙之间,这条冥想花园小径把公共的入口区域和私密的西花园联系起来。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ Large stones are embedded in pea gravel and interplanted with geranium, wild ginger, epimedium and ferns.
巨大的石块镶嵌在豆砾石中,之间和间种着天竺葵,野姜,淫羊藿和蕨类植物。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ The West Garden is richly textured, featuring Bissetii bamboo, Tiger Eye sumac, perennials and ornamental grasses. The coarseness of the foliage contrasts with the orderly joint lines of the bluestone, and the crisp horizontal lines of the ipe walls.
西花园的质感非常丰富,特色是竹子,虎眼石漆树和各种多年生植物和观赏花草。叶子的原始和粗糙与青石有序的节点,以及IPE墙上明快的水平纹路形成了对比
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ The West Garden has been designed to accommodate the entertainment of large groups while maintaining a sense of intimacy appropriate for a gathering of the immediate family.
西花园的设计既能够容纳大型群体活动,但又保持着一种小家庭聚会的亲近感。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ A low concrete wall was integrated into the West Garden. The children use it as a balance beam, a store counter, or a hiding place. Because no chemicals are needed for maintenance, they are limited only by their imagination.
一墩混凝土矮墙融合到入西花园的设计当中。孩子们可以把它当作平衡木,商店柜台,或者是做迷藏的好地方。由于花园不需要使用化肥维护,所以孩子可以在花园里任意发挥想象尽情玩耍。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ A view from the back of the property reveals a layered approach to green space: the West Garden held privately below, and the Roof Garden above, bathed in the long southern exposure.
从这个房屋后方的视角可以看到绿色空间的多层次设计:下面的花园具有私密性,而上面的屋顶花园则在宽松的南向空间里沐浴着日光。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ The roof garden softens the modern façade of the building while mitigating the heat island effect, insulating the space below, and reducing roof runoff. Vegetable planters enable the family to teach their children the rural art of vegetable growing.
屋顶花园柔化了建筑的现代立面,同时减缓了热岛效应,让其下面的空间更加独立,还减少了流经屋顶的灰水。蔬菜种植区让家庭成员能够教育他们的孩子耕种的艺术。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan

↑ Google Image for context, depicting the dense, urban location of the home. The site is surrounded by towering residences. An elementary school and parking lot are located directly to the south.
从谷歌图片中可以看到房子周围环境是密集的城市区域。建筑基地被高层住宅围绕着。而南面紧邻着一所小学和停车场。
Photo Credit: Linda Oyama Bryan


PROJECT NARRATIVE

Located in the dense Chicago neighborhood of Lincoln Park, the client’s new construction single-family residence was designed with two goals in mind – to create a modern house for their young family of four and to establish an integral relationship between the inside and outside spaces.

The clients love the city and plan to raise their family in the heart of it. At the same time, they have a strong interest in plant life and the natural world and want their children to develop this interest. Thus, the design needed to embrace both of these passions – the city and the natural world – proving that these loves are not incompatible. In fact, when juxtaposed thoughtfully, each framing the other, the city and natural world are at their best.


Programmatic Requirements

The site is 50’x125’, twice as wide as the average city lot. Yet like many urban sites, the density of the neighborhood can be a challenge when creating a private outside space. The site is surrounded by towering residences and an elementary school and parking lot are located directly to the south. On the other hand, because the school parking lot creates a 75’ gap between the school building and the residence, the site receives an enviable amount of southern exposure on the longer side of the building - an unusual asset in the city.

The house covers 50% of the site, leaving 3600sf of outside space on the ground level for the clients’ programmatic requirements: a dining and entertainment space, a grilling area, and several areas for perennial gardening. A 1430sf green roof allows additional space for a desired vegetable gardening area. It also allows for views of the city skyline. Between the green roof, the ground level planting beds and gravel gardens, 53% of the total site is covered in permeable surface, reducing water run-off and mitigating the heat island effect, another programmatic goal of the landscape architect and the client.

The design addressed the clients’ needs and the site’s challenges through the development of four distinct landscapes: The Entry Garden, The Garden Walk, The West Garden, and The Rooftop Garden. Each garden has a different function and a unique character. What unites them are their diverse, rich palettes and their ability to hold their own, acting as a foil to an equally rich architectural palette.


The Entry Garden

In contrast to the neighboring residences, this project is unique in its embrace of the public way. There are no fences or gates mediating one’s approach to the house. The entry garden reaches out to the parkway, featuring Boulevard lindens underplanted with perennials and wild grasses - a riot of color and wildness more typically found in a private setting. It creates a visual juxtaposition with the modern materials of the house and provides a sensory experience for all who pass by.

While there is an air of openness at the parkway, the front entry was designed in a manner reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright. The entry is privately tucked away behind a raised garden planted with Royal Frost birches, rhododendron, and dwarf Japanese maples. A yew hedge to the south serves as a background for the Entry Garden and screens the parking lot and school to the south. Hydrangea climbs the building wall and Boston ivy covers the entry bench.


The Garden Walk

Along the southern edge of the house, positioned between a clean wall of glass and ipe and a 6 foot concrete wall, the Garden Walk links the very public parkway and the private West Garden. What is normally a secondary space used for transition is treated as a contemplative space with a distinctive character of its own. Large, rough, granite stones are embedded in pea gravel and interplanted with wild ginger, geranium, astilbe, epimedium, ferns, and brunnera. Trumpet vine and hydrangea climb the concrete wall, elegantly contrasting with the brutalist surface

Just south of the concrete wall, Triumph elm trees are planted in the school parking lot to create shade to the south face of the building and to mitigate solar gain in the summer. This area is bright and almost like a walking meditation garden, with the sounds of the city and the rustling of the Elms providing the sound track.


The West Garden

A Yin and Yang of walls at the edges of the property – a board formed concrete wall to the south and an ipe board fence to the west and north - allow much of the first floor to be enclosed in glass. It is as if the exterior walls of the house were moved to the property limits, and the outside space is an extension of the inside. This idea is reinforced by sliding doors and a continuous bluestone ground plane. At the same time, the walls provide a peaceful limit for the eye.

Nested within the walls, the West Garden features a bluestone surface for dining and entertaining. The garden is richly textured and layered with katsura, fernleaf beech, Japanese stewartia, mugo pine, quince, tiger eye sumac, perennials and ornamental grasses. The coarseness of the foliage contrasts with the orderly joint lines of the bluestone, and the crisp horizontal lines of the ipe walls.

A low concrete seat wall is integrated into the West Garden as a sculptural and interactive element to engage the children. They use it as a balance beam, a store counter, a reading nook, and a hiding place. Because the garden requires no chemicals to maintain it, the children are limited only by their imagination.


The Roof Garden

A vegetable garden and green roof are accessible from the second floor and visible from the street, again blurring the bounds of public and private, city and verdant, urban and rural. The path leading from the door to the vegetable planters is made of stepping stones embedded in gravel and interplanted with sedum and thyme, grounding this elevated space. This feeling is reinforced by the view of the intensive green roof planted with indian grass, little bluestem, side oats gramma, agastache, pale coneflower, and Summer Beauty allium, evoking native prairies endemic to the area. This rooftop oasis softens the modern façade of the building while mitigating the heat island effect, adding insulation to the space below, reducing roof runoff and attracting wildlife.

Each area - The Entry Garden, The Garden Walk, The West Garden, and The Rooftop Garden - has its own purpose and character. Yet they share a common purpose of providing a diverse, lively frame through which the family experiences their modern home. The family actively engages in the care of the gardens, enjoying the sensory experience it provides, the birds and butterflies the gardens attract, and the privacy it affords them - right in the heart of the city they love.


MORE:  McKay Landscape Architects


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